A major part of the discussion on turbulence is based on the Chandrasekhar's lecture notes on turbulence as written by Edward A. Spiegel [((bibcite spiegel_2010_turb))]

Turbulence may be characterized by the co-existence of an infinite number of solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations. These solutions all satisfy the boundary conditions and interact in an infinite number of ways by transferring information: energy and scalars. A useful example that illustrates this is the one given by Chandrasekhar.

Consider the flow between two co-rotating concentric cylinders with angular speeds $w_\text{i}$ and $w_\text{o}$ for the inner and outer cylinders, respectively.

: spiegel_2010_turb : Spiegel, E. A. (Ed.). (n.d.). The Theory of Turbulence Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar’s 1954 Lectures. Lecture Notes in Physics.